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PHI 208 Week 3 quiz (all correct)


Question 1.                 In the article “War and Massacre,” Thomas Nagel argues that moral absolutism

is consistent with the principles of utilitarianism

 can be used to justify genocide

 is primarily concerned with what a person is doing

 is primarily concerned with the outcome of a person’s actions


  Question 2.                According to Thomas Nagel’s article, “War and Massacre,” the absolutist position that creates no problems of interpretation is

rule utilitarianism

 act utilitarianism


humanitarian intervention




Question 3.                 In Kant Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, the maxim of an act is:

the policy or principle that you would be following if you did it.

the expected overall utility resulting from the action.

 the moral rule that an act either respects or violates .

 all of the above.



Question 4.                 Thomas Nagel argues that all rules of engagement should be governed by the utilitarian principle that

any means can be justified if it leads to a worthy end

 the greatest good can justify targeting noncombatants

 we are always justified in attacking the tyranny of the majority

 none of the above



Question 5.                 According to the video, “Religion, War, and Violence,” for a war to be considered just, it must

be aimed at repelling aggression

 have a strong probability of success

 must be only used as a last resort

 all of the above


   Question 6.               According to Nagel, which of the following may be permitted by absolutism, at least in some circumstances?

Intentionally killing an innocent person

 Doing something that brings about an innocent person's death

 Dropping a nuclear bomb on an enemy city

 Torturing an innocent person




Question 7.                 According to Nagel, to which of the following groups of people is hostility most appropriately aimed?






  Question 8.                Jeremy Waldron argues that the current use of drone warfare is unethical because

it is conducted by unlawful combatants such as CIA personnel who are not subject to military ethics

  it is conducted by individuals who are thousands of miles removed from targets

  it may result in unintended civilian casualties

 all of the above



Question 9.                 Nagel’s argument that hostility or aggression should be directed at its true object means that which of the following would probably not be permissible?

                                     Torturing a prisoner to get the names of his confederates.

                                     Attacking an enemy country’s agricultural system.

                                     Bombing major cultural centers.

                                     All of the above. 


  Question 10.              According to Kant, the moral worth of an action:

                                     lies in its conformity to the moral law.

                                     lies in the value of the expected result.

                                     lies in its conformity to God’s commands.

                                     lies in its usefulness to society.



Question 11.               According to the video “Religion, War, and Violence,” Just War Theory asserts that military intervention

can be seen as an act of altruism

 must always have an altruistic component

 must be primarily an act of altruism

 must never have an altruistic component



Question 12.               In the article “War and Massacre,” Thomas Nagel argues that utilitarianism

is primarily concerned with what should happen

 is primary concerned with what will happen

 is primarily concerned with theory over practice

 is primarily concerned with universal justice



Question 13.               Reason is a faculty that we have that:

is only good if it succeeds in satisfying our desires.

 is the driving principle of a good will.

 is the fundamental ground of human dignity.

 both B and C



Question 14.               Kant explains that respect for a person is:

the recognition of the worth of the person’s potential contribution to society.

  dependent upon whether the person respects others.

 both A and B

 none of the above.




Question 15.               According to the video “Religion, War, and Violence,” proponents of Just War Theory agree that without the restraints of Just War Theory

                                     the violence and aggression of war would be worse

                                     humanitarian intervention would be more successful

                                     prisoners and noncombatants would have greater equality

                                     none of the above



Question 16.               Kant claims that a good will is:

                                     something that can only be called good with qualification.

                                     the only thing that can be called good without qualification.

                                     that which makes qualified goods like character traits morally good.

                                     both B and C.



Question 17.               Kant argues that when I find someone in need:

I should give whatever spare resources I have unless it makes me worse off than the person I’m trying to help.

 I should consider a world in which no one helped me when I was in need, recognize that I could never will such a world, and help them in the best way that I can.

I should sympathize with them, but recognize that the world is better off overall if we each only look after our own interests.

I should remember that as autonomous beings they are responsible for their own situation, and thus that I have no responsibility to help them out.




Question 18.               In the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective,” Jeremy Waldron argues that drones are not ethical because their use involves

                                     total transparency and accountability

                                     the assurance that only combatants will be targeted

                                     the maintenance of a secret death list by government authorities

                                     all of the above



Question 19.               Nagel argues that the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were just like what other kind of action, just on a larger scale?

Killing the wife and child of someone attacking you in order to distract him from his attack.

Bombing a munitions factory and killing some of the civilian workers inside.

Firing at an enemy soldier and hitting an innocent bystander with a stray bullet.

Bombing a convoy of enemy soldiers. 



Question 20.               According to Kant, persons:

are rational beings.

must always be regarded as an end.

 have absolute value.

 all of the above.












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